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Fused quartz is manufactured by melting naturally occurring quartz crystals of high purity at approximately 2000°C, using either an electrically heated furnace (electrically fused) or a gas/oxygen-fuelled furnace (flame fused). Fused quartz is normally transparent. Fused silica as an industrial raw material is used to make various refractory shapes such as crucibles, trays, shrouds, and rollers for many high temperature thermal processes including steelmaking, investment casting, and glass manufacture. Refractory shapes made from fused silica have excellent thermal shock resistance and are chemically inert to most elements and compounds including virtually all acids, regardless of concentration, except hydrofluoric acid which is very reactive even in fairly low concentrations. Translucent fused silica tubes are commonly used to sheathe electric elements in room heaters, industrial furnaces and other similar applications.
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Glass tubes or glass tubing are hollow pieces of borosilicate or flint glass used in laboratory glassware. They are commercially available in various thicknesses and lengths, according to known standards.
Glass tubes can be cut by scoring with a diamond cutter, and bending, giving a break with a clean edge. The ends are preferably flame polished before use to remove the edge. Hose barbs can be added to give a better grip and seal when used with rubber tubing. Glass tubes can be bent by heating to red heat in a non-luminous Bunsen flame. The glass tubes are fitted to rubber bungs by drilled holes.
A beaker is a simple container for stirring, mixing and heating liquids commonly used in many laboratories. Beakers are generally cylindrical in shape, with a flat bottom and a lip for pouring. Many also have a small spout to aid pouring as shown in the picture. Beakers are available in a wide range of sizes, from one millilitre up to several litres.
Standard or "Low-form" beakers typically have a height about 1.4 times the diameter. The common low form with a spout has been called the Griffin form. "Tall form" beakers have a height about twice the diameter. These are sometimes called Berzelius beakers.
A beaker is distinguished from a flask by having sides which are straight rather than sloping. The exception to this definition is a slightly conical sided beaker is called a Phillips beaker.
Beakers are commonly made of glass (today usually borosilicate glass), but can also be in metal (such as stainless steel or aluminium) or certain plastics, (notably polythene, polypropylene, PTFE). A common use for polypropylene beakers is gamma spectral analysis of liquid and solid samples.
Beakers are often graduated, that is, marked on the side with lines indicating the volume contained. For instance, a 250 mL beaker might be marked with lines to indicate 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mL of volume. These marks are not intended for obtaining a precise measurement of volume (a graduated cylinder would be a more appropriate instrument for such a task), but rather an estimation.
The presence of a lip means that the beaker cannot have a lid. However, when in use, beakers may be covered by a watch glass to prevent contamination or loss of the contents, but allowing venting via the spout.
Laboratory flasks are vessels (containers) which fall into the category of laboratory equipment known as glassware. In laboratory and other scientific settings, they are usually referred to simply as flasks. Flasks come in a number of shapes and a wide range of sizes, but a common distinguishing aspect in their shapes is a wider vessel "body" and one (or sometimes more) narrower tubular sections at the top called necks which have an opening at the top. Laboratory flask sizes are specified by the volume they can hold, typically in metric units such as milliliters (mL or ml) or liters (L or l). Laboratory flasks have traditionally been made of glass, but can also be made of plastic.
At the opening(s) at top of the neck of some glass flasks such as round-bottom flasks, retorts, or sometimes volumetric flasks, there are outer (or female) tapered (conical) ground glass joints. Some flasks, especially volumetric flasks, come with a stopper or cap for capping the opening at the top of the neck. Such stoppers can be made of glass or plastic. Glass stoppers typically have a matching tapered inner (or male) ground glass joint surface, but often only of stopper quality. Flasks which do not come with such stoppers or caps included may be capped with a rubber bung or cork stopper.
Flasks can be used for making solutions or for holding, containing, collecting, or sometimes volumetrically measuring chemicals, samples, solutions, etc. for chemical reactions or other processes such as mixing, heating, cooling, dissolving, precipitation, boiling (as in distillation), or analysis.